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According to the CDC National Center for Health Statistics, more than one-third of adults in the United States are obese. "NonHispanic blacks have the highest age-adjusted rates of obesity (48.1%) followed by Hispanics (42.5%), non-Hispanic whites (34.5%), and non-Hispanic Asians (11.7%). Obesity is higher amount middle age adults age 40-59 years (40.2%) and older adults ages 60 and over (37%) than among younger adults age 20-39 (32.3%)."
The rate of those who have endured bariatric surgery has increased over recent years. There are four main types of weight loss surgery that is most often used in America. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and duodenal switch with biliopancreatic diversion.
In order to qualify for weight loss or bariatric surgery, one must have a BMI equal to or greater than 40 or have an excess of 100 pounds or more. Or have a BMI equal or greater than 35 with a least two obesity-related conditions. If you believe you are within this range and cannot lose weight through conventional methods, speaking with your doctor about bariatric procedures may be an option for you.
Roux-en-Y Gastric BypassThis form is one of the most popular bariatric surgeries to date. In the bypass procedure, the surgeon will create a pouch at the top of the stomach and connect the newly constructed pocket to the small intestine. This will limit the amount of food and drinks you are able to consume in one sitting.This also limits the amounts of the nutrient your body is able to absorb through the intestines.
Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric BandingInstead of cutting your vital organ, you can just "rubber-band" it. The procedure is done by placing an inflatable balloon-like band device at the top of the stomach, creating a pouch. This limits the amount of food that your stomach can hold, allowing your body to feel full sooner. The benefit of the gastric banding involves the ability to adjust the band or remove it at any time.
Sleeve GastrectomyDuring this procedure, part of the stomach is completely separated and removed from the body. Your stomach will become thinner and it cannot hold as much food as before.This procedure impacts the body's ability to produce ghrelin, the appetite-regulating hormone that controls you desire to eat.
Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch
According to Obesity News Today, this procedure is done by reducing the size of the stomach into a small tubular pouch. After the pouch is formed, the doctor will create a bypass of the pouch to the last portion of the small intestine. This allows the patient to consume food and have it empty directly into the last segment of it. The remainder this tubular organ will attach to the pancreas and the end of the intestine, allowing bile to flow into the re-attached intestine.
Before and after bariatric surgery it is important to follow the doctor's orders when it comes to dieting and lifestyle habits. You can no longer eat the same way after enduring this surgery. Most of these procedures will instruct the patient to adhere to a strict bariatric diet.
What does a bariatric diet entail?
There are five stages of the bariatric diet that all patients will have to endure. You can no longer eat like you used to or else the surgical procedure will not work properly and can disrupt healing. Even before the weight loss surgery, your body needs to prepare and lose fat around internal organs for the procedure to be a success.
First Stage: Pre-Surgery Liquid Diet
During this 7 to 14 day stage before the procedure, no solids should be consumed. Things like protein shakes and meal replacement shakes are to be taken to provide the body with nutrients and allows you to feel full. You can also drink broths and soups without any meats or vegetables. Water is a must.
This lowers the amount of fat in the body and prevents any complications during surgery. If you do not follow this necessary stage, you risk your surgery being canceled or rescheduled to a later time.
Second stage: Post-Op Liquid Diet
After surgery, it is important not to irritate any incisions within the body. The exact time period the patient will have to drink only liquids depends on their healthier and healing ability. This includes;
- Fat-Free Broth
- Low-Fat or Fat-Free Milk
- Sugar-Free Gelatin
- Sugar-Free juices
It is important to sip these liquids slowly and in small quantities to prevent any irritation.
Third Stage: Pureed Foods
After receiving the okay from your physician, usually one-week after, you can now eat pureed proteins and foods. Protein will help your body during this stage of recovery. This stage usually lasts from 1 to 14 days after the liquid diet. Pureed foods include:
- Protein shakes
- Lean Ground Meats
- Egg Whites
- Non-fatty Cheese
These pureed foods can be blended with liquids like water or broth to taste. But water and other liquids should not be taken at the same time as your meals. Wait up to 30 minutes before and an hour after each meal to prevent irritation.
Fourth Stage: Soft Foods
Now you can start experimenting with softer foods now that your stomach has healed a little more. Meals at this stage can include:
- Ground or finely diced lean meats
- Egg Whites
- Non-Fat Cheese & Yogurt
- Soft & Peeled Vegetable
- Soft Fruits
This should be eaten in small servings, one to two ounces per serving, about 4-6 times a day.
Five Stage: Solid Foods
Now that you are ready and able you can get back to eating solid foods. But you cannot eat like you did before your surgical procedure. Now you must permanently watch what you eat and how much you eat to prevent gaining it all back again. Be sure to avoid certain foods that are tough to digest such as shellfish, bread and grains, fried foods, and tough meats. Sticking to a meal plan program can help you stay on track.